Digital Narrative – Week 1

Digital Narrative Week 1

Today was a session all about Narratology. This was a continuation from the reading we were given by Mieke Bal, Narratology, Introduction to the Theory of Narrative.


  • This means the study of narrative and how it works.
  • A story is a set of events taking place.
  • The narrative is how you tell the story and in what ways.

Discourse-This means a way of talking about something.

Narrative Agents or Subject (Addressor)The one who conveys the story to the audience (the addressee).

Diagesis-Details of the world are revealed through the narrative, the story is told rather than shown.

Fabula- The chronological order of the events contained in the story and the way they are logically carried forward.

Syuzhet-A common story/plot, which is often used. Many narratives share the same plot but are presented in a different way eg. romantic comedies.

 Focalisation- This is how the story is told. First person, third person etc

Subjective- Seeing the world from your perspective.

Objective- Require feedback to know the persons view.

Occularisation– The way the story is told using visuals and images.

An example of occularisation is Die Hard where the whole film is told through the all American hero’s perspective.

The Male Gaze-Occularisation that gets you to look at a film through the ‘males eyes.’

An example of this is the James Bond series where women are seen as eye candy rather than having any definitive role in the film. Bollywood movies are very typical of ‘the male gaze.’ The hero is shown larger than life but women are portrayed as a much weaker sex and often dress inappropriately and have no role in the film accept as a trophy piece to the hero.

The Pro-Filmic-Depending on who made the film follows how the characters are perceived. Eg Alfred Hitchcock films are male dominated.

The Intra Diegetic-The characters looking at one another in a particular way eg ‘the male gaze.’

The Extra Diegetic-The audience is forced to see in a particular way.

Occularisation has problems because we could slip into sharing opinions that we are not comfortable with. For example ‘the male gaze.’

Synopsis-Summary of the story in the film.

Waltz with Bashir

An animated Israeli war documentary film made in 2008 by Ari Folman.

Narrative-At the start, the film is shifting in occularisation. It switches to an ‘I’ narrative when the character has his flashback. This sets up the audience as the narratee to be taken on to the journey with him. You identify with the soldier and his story. The focalisation switches so we emphasise with the situation. As the audience we identify with the narrator. We are given importance with the switch in focalisation as it relays the story to us. The occularisation gives us a glimpse of his mental state of mind. Focalisation is giving us a sense of the wider view. The story is about his past. It is fragmented as he is putting his memories together and as the audience so are we. The sound is used so we empathise with the character. It reflects the emotions of them. When there is no narrative the music influences the audience’s emotions. We are fully immersed in the story and identify with the charaters story.


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