Research for presentation

Here is some research for my website presentation and essay. I went through loads of websites and a few books and muddled my brain with so many ideas. Thankfully though I did manage to find some bits of relevant information.

 Book from KC Library


New Media: A Critical Introduction

Martin Lister, Jon Dovey< Seth Giddings, Iain Grant, Kieran Kelly

CMC allows people to communicate not just individually and one to one but as a part of a group, to participate in group communication exchanges in which their mode of address was semi public rather than private.

Computer mediated communication can be seen as an antidote to social fragmentation of contemporary life (Rheingold 1994) or an idea of a newly revived public sphere (Kellner1998; Poster 1997)

New kind of belongings bought about by online communites.

The internet has a communication system that requires active engagement and dialogue.

The age of the public sphere as face to face talk is clearly over; the question of democracy must henceforth take into account new forms of electronically mediated discourse. (Poster 1997: 220)

In the internet age, everyone with access to a computer, modem, and Internet service can participate in discussion and debate, empowering large numbers of individuals and groups. (Kellner 1998: 6)

Previous notions of online community have been reformulated as a method for creating a market for your site and its associate products, especially after the publication of Net Gain: Expanding Markets Through Virtual Communities (Hagel and Armstrong 1997). The book argued that virtual communities created a sense of belonging and brand identification that users felt with a text based site like ‘The Well” the authors main model with the post text internet of the web (Senft 2000: 188)

Our experiences of self, of group identity, of our spaces of ‘cultural belonging’ emerge through our interaction with the mediated communications produced through the social processes.

Community. Our sense of belonging to social groups which often extend beyond the boundaries of specific place to include taste, consumption, shared interests and shared discursive codes. Used here to describe groups of internet users sharing a common interest connected via networked digital media.”

Ref: New Media: A Critical Introduction Ed. by Martin Lister et al

 Virtual Communities: a starting point

The work of Rheingold is a good starting point for any sociological investigation of online communities. Rheingold was probably the first to write of the existence of online communities, saying that “Virtual communities are cultural aggregations that emerge when enough people bump into each other often enough in cyberspace.” (413) These virtual communities are based around online third places such as chat rooms and conferencing systems. Rheingold goes on to say that members of virtual communities join together online to do everything that others do in the physical world. The obvious difference is that members of online communities interact, many times exclusively, via text on computer screens.

Despite the plethora of investigations of virtual community over recent years, there remain some very important questions which need to be addressed by sociologists studying virtual communities: Do they make people more or less isolated from the physical world communities around them? Do they cause us to neglect communities in our physical realm? Will virtual communities continue to be inclusive or will we be forced to make them exclusive as more people come online? Will we ever see truly diverse virtual communities? Sadly, there are no answers to these questions here, so I encourage readers to begin investigating these and other important questions now before it becomes to late. To help us towards this goals, Howard and myself would like to invite every reader of cybersociology magazine to Electric Minds where we (and many others) are debating these issues in the community and fundamentals forums.

Whether explaining or complaining, joking or serious, the human voice is unmistakably genuine. It can’t be faked. Doc Searls, The Cluetrain Manifesto

Writing and editing for digital media/ Brian Carroll

Brian Carroll is Associate Professor of Communication and Director of the Honors Program at Berry College, and Adjunct Professor of Journalism in the School of Journalism and Mass Communication at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.

Carve out a niche: The best bloggers focus on specific interests. The narrower the topic, the better. This leverages their own expertise and experience in the area. Larry Lessig Stanford Law Professor blog focuses onfirst ammendment and property law. People trust his speciality.

Internet scminternet. Revolutions happen when they happen. Whatever means are lying around will get used. Jay Rosen, New York University-journalism professor

User experience is everything. It always has been, but it’s still undervalued and underinvested in. Evan Williams, Twitter, co-founder

A squirrel dying in front of your house may be more relevant to your interests right now than people dying in Africa. Mark Zuckerberg, Facebook founder

Interactors see news ‘products’ as connecting people and communities, and as something that can be customized and shared. It matters less who wrote or published it than it does how ‘shareable’ it is.

Social networks encourage fast, constant, brief communications.

“Journalism has many unsend buttons, including editors. Social networks have none. Reuters

Social media are timely, even immediate, and they are easily and readily accessible. Free and powerful in getting messages across.

Some 500 students took part in the research, which found that among those who do communicate with lecturers online, Facebook is by far the most popular channel (85 per cent). Just over a third (36 per cent) said they used Twitter, and nearly a quarter (23 per cent) used the messaging application What’sApp.

“Students often spend a large amount of their free time using social media, so if this tool could be used effectively for academic purposes it would be a great resource”.

Chartered Psychologist Dr Stephanie Morgan

one-stop knowledge sharing shop

Social media is all about having a conversation. It is distinguishable from many other Web tools because it provides a two-way dialogue and allows for real discussion.

The Internet is the decisive technology of the Information Age, and with the explosion of wireless communication in the early twenty-first century, we can say that humankind is now almost entirely connected, albeit with great levels of inequality in bandwidth, efficiency, and price.

Our current “network society” is a product of the digital revolution and some major sociocultural changes. One of these is the rise of the “Me-centered society,” marked by an increased focus on individual growth and a decline in community understood in terms of space, work, family, and ascription in general. But individuation does not mean isolation, or the end of community. Instead, social relationships are being reconstructed on the basis of individual interests, values, and projects. Community is formed through individuals’ quests for like-minded people in a process that combines online interaction with offline interaction, cyberspace, and the local space.

As stated above, academic research has established that the Internet does not isolate people, nor does it reduce their sociability; it actually increases sociability, as shown by myself in my studies in Catalonia (Castells 2007), Rainie and Wellman in the United States (2012), Cardoso in Portugal (2010), and the World Internet Survey for the world at large (Center for the Digital Future 2012 et al.). Furthermore, a major study by Michael Willmott for the British Computer Society (Trajectory Partnership 2010) has shown a positive correlation, for individuals and for countries, between the frequency and intensity of the use of the Internet and the psychological indicators of personal happiness. He used global data for 35,000 people obtained from the World Wide Survey of the University of Michigan from 2005 to 2007. Controlling for other factors, the study showed that Internet use empowers people by increasing their feelings of security, personal freedom, and influence, all feelings that have a positive effect on happiness and personal well-being. The effect is particularly positive for people with lower income and who are less qualified, for people in the developing world, and for women. Age does not affect the positive relationship; it is significant for all ages. Why women? Because they are at the center of the network of their families, Internet helps them to organize their lives. Also, it helps them to overcome their isolation, particularly in patriarchal societies. The Internet also contributes to the rise of the culture of autonomy.

The Rise of Social Network Sites on the Internet

Since 2002 (creation of Friendster, prior to Facebook) a new socio-technical revolution has taken place on the Internet: the rise of social network sites where now all human activities are present, from personal interaction to business, to work, to culture, to communication, to social movements, and to politics.

Social Network Sites are web-based services that allow individuals to (1) construct a public or semi-public profile within a bounded system, (2) articulate a list of other users with whom they share a connection, and (3) view and traverse their list of connections and those made by others within the system.

(Boyd and Ellison 2007, 2)

Thus, the most important activity on the Internet at this point in time goes through social networking, and SNS have become the chosen platforms for all kind of activities, not just personal friendships or chatting, but for marketing, e-commerce, education, cultural creativity, media and entertainment distribution, health applications, and sociopolitical activism. This is a significant trend for society at large.

SNS are living spaces connecting all dimensions of people’s experience. This transforms culture because people share experience with a low emotional cost, while saving energy and effort. They transcend time and space, yet they produce content, set up links, and connect practices. It is a constantly networked world in every dimension of human experience. They co-evolve in permanent, multiple interaction. But they choose the terms of their co-evolution.

Thus, people live their physical lives but increasingly connect on multiple dimensions in SNS.

The ongoing transformation of communication technology in the digital age extends the reach of communication media to all domains of social life in a network that is at the same time global and local, generic and customized, in an ever-changing pattern.

As a result, power relations, that is the relations that constitute the foundation of all societies, as well as the processes challenging institutionalized power relations, are increasingly shaped and decided in the communication field. Meaningful, conscious communication is what makes humans human. Thus, any major transformation in the technology and organization of communication is of utmost relevance for social change. Over the last four decades the advent of the Internet and of wireless communication has shifted the communication process in society at large from mass communication to mass self-communication. This is from a message sent from one to many with little interactivity to a system based on messages from many to many, multimodal, in chosen time, and with interactivity, so that senders are receivers and receivers are senders. And both have access to a multimodal hypertext in the web that constitutes the endlessly changing backbone of communication processes.

Networked: The New Social Operating System Paperback – 7 Mar 2014

by Lee Rainie (Author), Barry Wellman  (A

Rainie and Wellman, using scores of data, argue that we live in a networked operating system characterized by networked individualism. They describe the triple revolution (networked revolution, internet revolution, and mobile revolution) that got us here, and discuss the repercussions of this triple revolution within various arenas of social life (e.g. the family, relationships, work, information spread). They conclude with an empirically informed guess at the future of the new social operating system of networked individualism, indulging augmented fantasies and dystopic potentials. Importantly, much of the book is set up as a larger argument against technologically deterministic claims about the deleterious effects of new information communication technologies (ICTs).

closed platformwalled garden or closed ecosystem[1][2] is a software system where the carrier or service provider has control over applicationscontent, andmedia, and restricts convenient access to non-approved applications or content. This is in contrast to an open platform, where consumers have unrestricted access to applications, content, and much more.

an essential part of Web 2.0 is harnessing collective intelligence, turning the web into a kind of global brain,

Social media platforms depend on user generated content.

because search engines use link structure to help predict useful pages.

Computer mediated communication can be seen as an antidote to social fragmentation of contemporary life (Rheingold 1994)

Facebook uses a variety of services, tools, and programming languages to make up its core infrastructure. At the front end, their servers run a LAMP (Linux, Apache, MySQL, and PHP) stack with Memcache.

Rheingold states:

The hyper-evolution of digital media over the past half century first depended on hardware, then software, then network infrastructure, then web services, and now the driving force shifts to the part of the system in people’s heads and between people. The digital divide now has to include the divide between those who know how to get and to verify information they need just in time and just in place, those who can cultivate and call on social networks, those who can persuade or educate – See more at:

The underlying methodology (Engelbart!) is enabled by the technology, but the methodology is what is important — giving students a means to continue discursive inquiry beyond the classroom, to tap into worldwide networks of knowledge and expertise, to talk among themselves instead of speaking when called upon by the professor. Making it easier for students to learn together and to take advantage of the infosphere beyond their classroom and their library is what makes for a pedagogy of co-learning. Much of what I do and what Cathy Davidson does in pursuit of co-learner can and should be done with index cards, whiteboards, and colored sticky notes.  – See more at:

I looked around, the online world was an unprecedented cornucopia of tools and knowledge for self-learners. If you want to learn how to fix a pipe, solve a partial differential equation, write software, you are seconds away from know-how via YouTube, Wikipedia and search engines. Access to technology and access to knowledge, however, isn’t enough. Learning is a social, active, and ongoing process. What would a motivated group of self-learners need to know to agree on a subject or skill, find and qualify the best learning resources about that topic, select and use appropriate communication media to co-learn it? Beyond technology, what do they need to know about learning and putting learning programs together?

“peeragogy,” a synthesis of techniques for collaborative learning and collaborative work.

Peer learning is the oldest form of human education that can be amplified and accelerated by today’s technological tools. The Handbook was created to help peers around the globe attain their educational goals and improve their projects. To fit the copyright license to the project vision, all of the Handbook contents are given a Creative Commons Zero Public Domain Dedication (CC0).

, “Rheingold and a great team of collaborators have preceded the rest of humanity in exploring the new dynamics of technologically-enhanced peer learning.”, said Bauwens.  Peer-to-Peer theorist Michel Bauwens, Research Director of the Free/Libre Open Knowledge Society (a project at the IAEN national university with support of the Ecuadorian Ministry of Human Resource and Knowledge), The Handbook is the world’s first book explicating Peeragogy, a collection of techniques for collaborative learning and collaborative work

See more at:

  • What significance does it have for the wider world?
  • We are coming out of 300 years of a system where people were led to believe that only self-interested exchange would bring progress to themselves and society, and that such exchanges had to be mediated by institutions such as the state and large corporations.
  • People are finding they can aggregate with those who have like-minded goals and create very complex artifacts such as a global online encyclopedia, a computer operating system that can take people to the moon, computer motherboards and open source cars.

These projects can be infused with new cooperative ethics and still lead to vibrant market activities — but on a new basis, where the entrepreneurial coalitions have to compose with the commons, the community, and its rules and norms. This leads to a new type of ethical economy, and deep transformations in civil society

in software, we can see how open source is systematically displacing pure proprietary plays wherever it emerges and this open content/fair-use economy has now reached one sixth of GDP Rather, we want a pluralistic economy, where people have a choice to share and cooperate, including deciding on the level of openness. The Creative Commons license is designed in precisely that way.

– See more at:

. – See more at:

Is Web and Internet the Same?

The Internet is not synonymous with World Wide Web. The Internet is a massive network of networks, a networking infrastructure. It connects millions of computers together globally, forming a network in which any computer can communicate with any other computer as long as they are both connected to the Internet. The World Wide Web, or simply Web, is a way of accessing information over the medium of the Internet. It is an information-sharing model that is built on top of the Internet.

Co-learning is ancient; the capacity for learning by imitation and more, to teach others what we know, is the essence of human culture. We are human because we learn together.

Our tools give everyone from individual creators to large companies and institutions a simple, standardized way to grant copyright permissions to their creative work. The combination of our tools and our users is a vast and growing digital commons, a pool of content that can be copied, distributed, edited, remixed, and built upon, all within the boundaries of copyright law.

This license lets others distribute, remix, tweak, and build upon your work, even commercially, as long as they credit you for the original creation. This is the most accommodating of licenses offered. Recommended for maximum dissemination and use of licensed materials.

we should know what it is that physically, physically connects us all.

Greater interaction between people generates a greater sense of community spirit.








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